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Routine Maintenance Of Francis Turbine
Jun 20, 2017

Francis turbine is a kind of counterattack turbine, invented by American engineer Francis in 1849, also known as Francis turbine, or radial flow turbine. The flow of water flows radially from the basket into the runner and then flows axially out of the runner, consisting of the crown, the lower ring and the blade. Francis turbine applications are widely used (about 20-700m), simple structure, stable operation and high efficiency, is the most widely used in a modern turbine. China's stand-alone capacity of 700 MW units put into operation in the Three Gorges, Xiangjiaba 800 MW mixed flow unit.

The main components include volute, seat ring, water guide, roof, runner, spindle, guide bearing (see turbine guide bearing), bottom ring, tail pipe, see Figure 1, the figure at the same time Indicating the flow of water. Volute is a diversion component, the shape of the snail shell, generally made of metal materials, circular cross-section. Seat ring between the volute and guide vane, by the ring, the lower ring and a number of columns, and the volute directly connected; column was wing, can not turn, also known as fixed guide vane. Water guide mechanism by the activities of guide vane, speed loop, arm, connecting rod and other components. The rotor is directly connected to the main shaft (see turbine main shaft), which is the rotating part of the type turbine. The runner consists of the upper crown, the lower ring, the discharge cone and a number of fixed blades. The shape and composition of the rotor are according to The use of different head and different. The draft pipe is the outlet of the runner to the downstream of the water turbine discharge components, generally curved elbow-shaped, small turbine commonly used straight cone-shaped tail pipe.

 According to the structure of the hydro-generator and the common fault analysis, the daily maintenance and overhaul of the hydro-generator can be carried out from the normal operation of the inspection and shutdown maintenance, and adhere to the daily removal of debris, Fix the screws, replace the damaged parts of the work.

(1) the inspection of the Francis turbine: whether the casing of the turbine is intact, whether or not there is any cracking, and whether the connecting bolts are loose; whether the rotating parts of the transmission, governor and turbine are flexible; No abnormal, the belt is tight, the belt tightness to meet the operating requirements; check all the valves and guide vanes are in the closed position; the bearing and lubrication parts are required to lubricate, oil and oil should meet the requirements. Check the electrical part of the inspection: Check the generator and control panel wiring is safe, insulation with or without damage; Rotate the generator rotor, and carefully determine whether the abnormal friction or impact and other abnormal sound; check the brush and the collector ring Or whether the contact of the commutator is good, the brush pressure is appropriate, the brush in the brush grip activity is normal; check the switch is flexible, the fuse of the melt has all been plugged. The position of all switches on the control panel should be correct so that the generator is in no-load condition.

(2) routine maintenance of mixed-Francis turbine: According to the operation of the hydropower unit, the necessary cleaning of the hydro-generating units on a regular basis, to keep the hydro-generator unit equipment clean, so that no debris, no water and timely treatment Loss may lead to hydroelectric generating units can not run the security risks. For example, the regular switching oil pressure pump and guide bearing oil pump to prevent the motor damp; the governor of the lever connection to the regular oiling to prevent corrosion; the soda separator to regularly discharge; regularly clean rubber water guide bearing Lubricating water filter to prevent debris clogging; spare parts, regular rubber water guide bearing with lubricating water put into the test; regularly to the butterfly valve bearing oil. In addition, for more sediment of the river, pay attention to observe the sediment on the bearings, guide vanes, runner and other wear and tear; North power plant in the winter operation, we should pay attention to prevent the ice on the turbine runner blade damage.